Notes 

            1. Richard N. Ostling and Joan K. Ostling, Mormon America: The Power and the Promise (New York: HarperCollins, 1999).
            2. Martin Naparsteck, “The West under Cover: Reviews of Books of Regional Interest, Mormon America: The Power and the Promise,” Salt Lake Tribune, January 30, 2000, D8.
            3. This event occurred during my missionary service in the Western States Mission while meeting with a Church of Christ minister in Albuquerque, New Mexico, in 1957.
            4. Sidney B. Sperry, “The Problem of the Horse and Other Domestic Animals,” Problems of the Book of Mormon (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1964), 160.
            5. In between these two positions are attempts to justify the word horse in the Book of Mormon as a reference to tapirs or to deer.
            For example, Robert R. Bennett speaks of the tapir as follows: “Members of Lehi’s family may have applied loanwords to certain animal species that they encountered for the first time in the New World, such as the Mesoamerican tapir. While some species of tapir are rather small, the Mesoamerican variety . . . can grow to be nearly six and a half feet in length and can weigh more than six hundred pounds. Many zoologists and anthropologists have compared the tapir’s features to those of a horse or a donkey” (Robert R. Bennett, “Horses in the Book of Mormon,” farms.byu.edu/publicatons/transcripts [accessed August 29, 2008]).
            And, as pointed out later in the text, John L. Sorenson suggests that the word horse in the Book of Mormon might be referring to deer: “A prehispanic figure modeled on the cover of an incense burner from Poptun, Guatemala, shows a man sitting on the back of a deer holding its ears or horns, and a stone monument dating to around AD 700 represents a woman astride the neck of a deer, grasping its horns. Then there is another figurine of a person riding an animal, this one from central Mexico. Possibly, then, the deer served as a sort of ‘horse’ for riding” (John L. Sorenson, An Ancient American Setting for the Book of Mormon [Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1996], 296–97).
            Milton R. Hunter and Thomas Stuart Ferguson attempt to merge the positions of faith and scientific evidence: “The claim made by the Book of Mormon that horses were on this continent and used in ancient America for purposes similar to the uses we make of them today finds strong support in the numerous fossil remains of horses that have been obtained from the asphalt deposits of Rancho La Brea in southern California. Of course, it is claimed that those fossil remains pre-date Book of Mormon times. However, there is no logical reason for believing, since horses were here prior to the arrival of the Jaredites and the Nephites, that horses could not have still been in America during the period in which those ancient civilizations flourished. Certainly such was the case” (Milton R. Hunter and Thomas Stuart Ferguson, Ancient America and the Book of Mormon [Oakland, CA: Kolob Book Company, 1950], 312–13; emphasis added).
            6. Sperry, “The Problem of the Horse and Other Domestic Animals,” 162; emphasis added.
            7. Sorenson, An Ancient American Setting for the Book of Mormon, 295–96.
            8. John W. Welch, ed., Reexploring the Book of Mormon (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1992), 98–100.
            9. Welch, Reexploring the Book of Mormon, 99–100.
            10. Introduction, Book of Mormon.
            11. Royal Skousen, “Translating the Book of Mormon: Evidence from the Original Manuscript,” Book of Mormon Authorship Revisted: The Evidence for Ancient Origins, Noel B. Reynolds, ed. (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1997), 64–65.
            12. Daniel H. Ludlow, A Companion to Your Study of the Book of Mormon (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1976), 28; emphasis added. Ludlow is quoting a letter dated Nauvoo, Illinois, March 1, 1842, addressed to John Wentworth, editor and proprietor of the Chicago Democrat. This letter was published at Nauvoo, May 1, 1842. See also Title Page, Book of Mormon; “The Testimony of Three Witnesses,” Book of Mormon; “The Testimony of the Prophet Joseph Smith,” The Book of Mormon; D&C 135:3; and Richard Lloyd Anderson, “By the Gift and Power of God,” Ensign 7, no. 9 (September 1977): 79–85.
            13. This expression, “vocabulary, environment, and perceptions,” is repetitively used as a way of emphasizing the possibility that at least some, if not most, of the words used in the Book of Mormon translation are products of Joseph Smith’s nineteenth-century circumstances. Thus, although Joseph translated the Book of Mormon “by the gift and power of God,” at the same time, his choices of words during the translation were often influenced by his vocabulary abilities, by the environment in which he lived, and by his interpretation of what the writers were trying to say. For example, see the discussion later in which the word adieu and whirlwind are mentioned along with their use as a product of Joseph’s vocabulary, environment, and perceptions.
            14. Preston Nibley, ed., History of Joseph Smith by His Mother, Lucy Mack Smith (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1958), 19–20; emphasis added.
            15. Jeff Lindsay, “Frequently Asked Questions about Latter-day Saint Beliefs: ‘Missing’ Plants and Animals in the Book of Mormon,” 1–2, http://www.athernet.com/~jlindsay (accessed February 9, 2000); emphasis added.
            16. Rodney Meldrum, DNA Evidence for Book of Mormon Geography: New Scientific Support for the Truthfulness of the Book of Mormon; Correlation and Verification through DNA, Prophetic, Scriptural, Historical, Climatological, Archaeological, Social, and Cultural Evidence, section 7, “Weather and Climate” (Rodney Meldrum, 2008), as transcribed and cited in Foundation for Apologetic Information and Research, “Weather and Climate,” www.fairlds.org/DNA_Evidence_for_Book_of_Mormon_Geography (accessed February 9, 2009).
            17. Stephen Houston, “Hurricane!” Mesoweb Publications, www.mesoweb.com/articles/houston/Hurricane.pdf (accessed February 9, 2009); emphasis added.
            18. Linda Schele and David Freidel, A Forest of Kings: The Untold Story of the Ancient Maya (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1990), 46–50; emphasis added.
            19. As an interesting aside to the “accordion-folded books” that were widely used throughout Mesoamerica before the Spanish conquest, Joseph L. Allen and Blake J. Allen say: “The concept of unfolding the scriptures is . . . represented in the Book of Mormon on several occasions. When Alma and Amulek were preaching to the people of Ammonihah, Alma bore witness to or expanded upon what Amulek had taught. Alma began to ‘explain things beyond, or to unfold the scriptures beyond that which Amulek had done’ (Alma 11:1; emphasis added). In our culture, we say, ‘Open your scriptures.’ In the Jewish culture, they ‘unroll’ the scriptures. In the Nephite/Maya culture, they ‘unfolded’ the scriptures. The Nephites not only wrote on brass and gold plates but also on large stones (Omni 1:20) and on beautifully painted codices [‘accordion-folded books’].” (Joseph Lovell Allen and Blake Joseph Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, 2nd ed. [Orem, UT: Book of Mormon Tours and Research Institute, 2008], 247.)
            20. Read about one instance in chapter 8, “The Teotihuacan Culture,” of Allen and Allen: “For all intents and purposes, Teotihuacan was administered by secret combinations from AD 350–600, Teotihuacan Period III. Information that began to surface in the 1990s and that reached its pinnacle in the beginning of the new millennium relates directly to Stela 31 of Tikal. A dramatic breakthrough in fourth century AD history is reflected in a report by Dr. David Stuart, who outlined the thesis that the ruler of Teotihuacan, nicknamed Spearthrower Owl, sent a powerful military force to Tikal in Maya territory in the early part of the Teothihuacan III Period (AD 350–400). The reigning Tikal ruler at that time, who has been labeled Great Jaguar Paw, was killed on January 16, AD 378. Spearthrower Owl then placed his young son on the throne. This young son is referred to as Curl Snout, or Yax Nuun Ayiin, which is literally interpreted as ‘First Crocodile’ and may have been the Lamanite king to whom Mormon wrote his epistle in AD 385.” (Allen and Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, 201–2; emphasis added)
            21. Welch, Reexploring the Book of Mormon, 1; emphasis added.
            22. Welch, Reexploring the Book of Mormon, 3–4.
            23. Welch, Reexploring the Book of Mormon, 10.
            24. Joseph Smith—History 1:71, footnote; emphasis added.
            25. In several instances, this statement, or one similar to it, is used as a way of emphasizing the point that Joseph Smith did not commit a “critical error” in using the word horse in the Book of Mormon. That is, the Nephites and Lamanites did not ride horses, use them to help fight battles, or employ them to pull plows, carts, or wagons. In Joseph’s time and as a reflection of his environment and perceptions, the horse was invaluable as a draft animal. The fact that the Book of Mormon does not mention horses for use as draft animals seems to support the contention that “what is not included in the Book of Mormon is probably more significant than what is included.”
            26. Noah Webster, An American Dictionary of the English Language, 2 vols. (New York: S. Converse, 1828), facsimile 4th ed. (San Francisco: Foundation for American Christian Education, 1967), s.v. “flock”; emphasis added.
            27. Skousen, “Translating the Book of Mormon,” 67, 71.
            28. Webster, An American Dictionary of the English Language, s.v. “litter.”
            29. Frans Blom, The Conquest of Yucatan (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1936), plate XI.
            30. See, for example, Stephen D. Houston and Tom Cummins, “Body, Presence, and Space in Andean and Mesoamerican Rulership,” Palaces of the Ancient New World (Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2004), 374–79; Lucy C. Salazar and Richard L. Burger, “Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous: Luxury and Daily Life in the Households of Machu Picchu’s Elite,” Palaces of the Ancient New World (Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2004), 329.
            31. See Schele and Freidel, A Forest of Kings: The Untold Story of the Ancient Maya, 60.
            32. Blom, The Conquest of Yucatan, 61.
            33. Webster, An American Dictionary of the English Language, s.v. “dog.”
            34. Webster, An American Dictionary of the English Language, s.v. “horse.”
            35. Michael D. Coe, Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs, 4th ed. (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997), 22.
            36. Lindsay, “Frequently Asked Questions about Latter-day Saint Beliefs,” 10.
            37. Schele and Freidel, A Forest of Kings: The Untold Story of the Ancient Maya, 60.
            38. Ted Schwarz, Arnold Friberg: The Passion of a Modern Master (Flagstaff, AZ: Northland Press, 1985), 53.
            39. Schwarz, Arnold Friberg: The Passion of a Modern Master, 142.
            40. See Coe, Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs, 199.
            41. Keith W. Perkins, part of his response made to the question, “Do we know of any other persons who may have seen or handled the plates?” http://reled.byu.edu/chist/perkinsk (accessed February 22, 2000); see also Saints’ Herald, October 1, 1879, 290.
            42. Perkins, “Do we know of any other persons who may have seen or handled the plates?” emphasis added.